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Agrimony

        
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Genus and Species:
Agrimonia Eupatoria; Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb, Nakai  (Chinese).
Pharmaceutical name: Herba Agrimoniae.

The plant is subject to a considerable amount of variation, some specimens being far larger than others, much more clothed with hairs and with other minor differences. It has, therefore, by some botanists, been divided into two species, but the division is now scarcely maintained. The larger variety, having also a greater fragrance, was named Agrimonia odorata.

Parts Used  Medicinally:
Entire plant.

FAMILY:
Rosaceae.

Also Known As:
Aaron' s rod, Burr marigold, cocklebur, church steeples, common agrimony, garclive, liverwort, money in both pockets, philanthropos, stickwort, sticklewort, Xianhecao (red-crowned crane's herb is the translation of this Chinese name).

German names: ackerkraut, ackermennig, fuffingerkraut, leberklette, griechisches leberkraut, odermennig.

Common trade name: Potter's Piletabs (England)

Energy and Flavor:
Slightly bitter,  drying, neutral.

Systems Affected:

Lungs, spleen, stomach, gallbladder,  liver and large intestines.
Herb to regulate blood; to constrict and arrest bleeding.

Bodily Influence:
Anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antiviral, analgesic, astringent, bitter tonic, cholagogue, diuretic, deobstruent, hemostatic,  heptic, vulnerary. A. pilosa is known to possess antibacterial and antiparasitic action.

Biochemical Constitutions:
Agrimonia eupatoria contains over 10% tannins (ellagitannins and trace gallotannins), agrimonolide, bitter glycosides, coumarins, flavonoids (luteolin and apigenin), nicotinic acid amide, silicic and urosolic acid, polysaccharides, vitamins B and K, iron, essential oil. And ascorbic acid.  The seeds contain oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids.

History:

The name 'Agrimony' comes from 'argemone' the word given by the Ancient Greeks to plants which healed the eyes, meaning cataract. 'Eupatoria' is from the name of the King of Pontus in northern Turkey; that is  Mithradates Eupator (63 B.C.), who was skilled in mixing herbal remedies. He was defeated by Pompey in 63 BC and therefore he had no choice but to commit suicide. According to  legend, he swallowed poisonous plant extract. His efforts, despite his knowledge of plants were unsuccessful. Over the years he had unwittingly built up an immunity to their toxic effects and, in the end, he resorted to a more conventional contemporary form of suicide, he fell on his sword. Another astringent of the rose family long used in medicine is agrimony, mentioned by Strabo (b. 63 B.C.) along with wormwood and betony.

The strangest use of agrimony was in an old remedy for internal hemorrhages. Herbalists mixed it with pounded frogs and a little human blood. As far as the magical use of agrimony, it is used in protection spells, and is used to banish negative energies and spirits. It is also used to reverse spells and send them back to the sender. It was believed that placing Agrimony under the head of a sleeping person will cause a deep sleep that will remain until it is removed. When combined with maiden-hair fern, rue, broom-straw, and ground ivy, agrimony is said "in the Tyrol to confer fine vision, and to point out the presence of witches".

In Anglo-Saxon times agrimony was virtually regarded as a heal-all with almost magical powers. Its name is thought to be a corruption of the Greek Argemone, used by Dioscorides to describe plants that healed eye disorders. Dioscorides stated that it was not only "a remedy for them that have bad livers," but also "for such as are bitten with serpents." However, like many plants, its usages were lost sight of for a thousand years, to be mentioned again in the Saxon Leechdoms of 1000 A.D., when it appears as argemoman.

Chaucer calls it "egrimoyne" in The Yeoman's Prologue, and in the fourteenth century it was used for liver troubles, to clarify fading vision, and to cleanse wounds. They also mixed it with mugwort and vinegar to treat patients with back pain.

An old English medical manuscript reported: "If (agrimony be leyd under mann's heed, He shal sleepn as he were deed; He shal neer drede ne wakyn; Till fro under his heed it be takyn".

Gerard believed in its efficacy. He says: 'A decoction of the leaves is good for them that have naughty livers' and he tells us also that Pliny called it a 'herb of princely authoritie.'

In Parkinson's "Theatre of Plants" (1640) there are seven varieties of Agrimony; the first and most important is the common Agrimony found in Italy.  Second, sweet smelling Agrimony found in Italy.  The third is Bastard Agrimony, also found in Italy, which although the resemblance is close is not a variety of this plant.  The fourth is Hemp Agrimony, which grows in damp places such as ditches and water courses in England.  The fifth, sixth and seventh come from America: the fifth and sixth being varieties of Hemp Agrimony and the seventh known as Water Agrimony.  This last named is also known as Bury marigold.  It is said to have originated in North America.

Extract from Culpepper's Herbal :
It is of a clensing and cutting faculty without any manifest heat, moderately drying and binding; It openeth and clenseth the Liver, helpeth the Jaundice, and is very beneficial to the Bowels, healing all inward Wounds, Bruises, Hurts, and other distempers. The Decoction of the Herb made with Wine and drunk is good against the stinging and biting of Serpents, and helps them that have foul, troubled, or bloody waters, and makes them piss cleer spedily; It also helpeth the Chollick, clenseth the Breast, and rids away the Cough. A draught of the Decoction taken warm before the fit, first removes, and in time rids away the Tertian or Quartan Agues; The Leaves and Seed taken in Wine, stayeth the Bloody Flux. Outwardly applied, being stamped with old Swines grease, it helpeth old sores, Cancers, and inveterate Ulcers; and draweth forth Thorns, Splinters or Wood, Nails, or any other such thing gotten into the Flesh; it helpeth to strengthen the Members that be out of joynt; and being bruised and applied, or the Juyce dropped in, it helpeth foul and imposthumed Ears.
[EDGENOTE:] Clensing, Drying, Binding, Liver, Jaundice, Inward Wounds, Inward Bruises, Bloody and troubled urin, Chollick, Breast, Cough, Tertian and Quartan Agues, Bloody Flux, ulcers, Cancers, Thorns, Splinters and Nails in the flesh, Members out of joynt, Aposthumes.
The distilled Water of the Herb is good to all the said purposes, either inward or outward, but a great deal weaker.
It is an Herb under Jupiter, and the Sign of Cancer, and therfore strengthens those parts under that Planet and Sign, and removes Diseases in them by Sympathy, and those under Saturn, Mars, and Mercury, by Antipathy. If they happen in any part of the Body governed by Jupiter, or under the Signs, Cancer, Sagitary, or Pisces, and therfore must needs be good for the Gout, either used outwardly in an Oyl or Oyntment, or inwardly in an Electuary or Syrup, or concreated Juyce, for which see the latter end of the Book.
It is a most admirable remedy for such whose Livers are annoyed either by heat or cold. The Liver is the former of Blood, and Blood the Nourisher of the body, and Agrimony and Strengthner of the Liver.
I cannot stand to give you a Reason in every Herb why it cureth such Diseases, but if you please to peruse my Judgment in the Herb Wormwood you shall find them there, and it will be well worth your while to consider it in every Herb, you shall find them true throughout the Book.

At the end of the 16th century, herbalists prescribed agrimony remedies for rheumatism, gout, and fevers.
Dr. Hill, who from 1751 to 1771 published several works on herbal medicine, recommends "an infusion of 6 oz. of the crown of the root in a quart of boiling water, sweetened with honey and half a pint drank three times a day," as an effectual remedy for jaundice. It gives tone to the system and promotes assimilation of food.

Green (Universal Herbal, 1832) tells us that 'its root appears to possess the properties of Peruvian bark in a very considerable degree, without manifesting any of its inconvenient qualities, and if taken in pretty large doses, either in decoction or powder, seldom fails to cure the ague.'

The English use it to make a delicious "spring" or "diet" drink for purifying the blood, and it is considered especially useful as a tonic for aiding recovery from winter colds and fevers. The King's Dispensatory quotes the following specific indications and uses: Deep-seated and colicky pain in the lumbar region, with uneasy sensations reaching from the kidneys to the hips and umbilicus (renal colic); muddy, ill-smelling urine, and dirty looking skin; especially as a palliative in phthisis; cystic catarrh; cough, with profuse, thick secretions, and pain under the lower ribs, extending to the renal organs; renal congestion; cough, with dribbling or expulsion of urine; irritation of kidneys or urinary organs, with cough.

It was at one time included in the London Materia Medica as a vulnerary herb.

In the United States and Canada, up through the 1800s, agrimony was used to treat digestive problems, bowel complaints, asthma, coughs, and sore throats.

Agrimony does have astringent properties, and the tea has been prescribed for internal bleeding and loose bowels.

Chinese herbalists have recommended it to stop bleeding of the intestines, of the uterus between menstrual periods, and they have prescribed it for patients with blood cells in their urine. In China the seeds are ground into flour.

Agrimony is also reputed to help cure problems of the kidney, liver, spleen, and gallbladder.

The Zulu use it in cases of tapeworm.

The French drink agrimony tea merely for pleasure, but it also may offer some health benefits. Mixed with other herbs it was a well-know ingredient of a potion called "Arquebus Water".  ..............in France it is a cure for bed-wetting. It is an important ingredient of the French 'eau d'arquebusade', used for wounds inflicted with an arquebus or handgun and is still sometimes used there to treat sprains and bruises.

Singers and speakers have been known to gargle with agrimony to clear and refresh their throats before performances.

It is said that sheep and goats will eat agrimony, but cattle and horses avoid it.

A Chinese story:
One summer 2 Chinese officials were making a long trip to Peking to take a national examination for promotion. Seeing that time was almost running out, they hastened their journey, only to find themselves in a desert without any village in sight. They were hungry and thirsty and physically exhausted, but they could find neither water to drink, food to eat, nor a place to rest. One of the officials suddenly developed a nosebleed, and the bleeding wouldn't stop, so his fellow traveler ripped a sheet of paper from an old book and squeezed it into his friend's nose. But it was in vain, as the blood continued to flow from his nose.

The official with the nosebleed said, "I wish I had some water". "Where could I possibly get water for you?" responded his nervous friend. "We are on a wide desert now. We're in dire straits. I wish someone would help us".

At that moment, a bird flew past them with a loud cry. The official with the nosebleed looked up and saw a red-crowned crane circling over his head. "Dear bird, I wish I could borrow your wings to fly out of this desert," shouted the official, with both arms outstretched and his mouth wide open. Shocked by the official's loud shouting, the red-crowned crane suddenly opened its beak and a blade of grass dropped from it to the ground. The official picked it up and murmured with a smile. "Even if I can't borrow your wings, I can still use this grass to moisten my mouth for some relief". And so, he put the grass in his mouth and started chewing it as it were a piece of gum. Oddly enough, the nosebleed stopped after a short while, and both officials started jumping for joy. "The bird gave us a magic grass," one of them said jokingly.

The 2 Chinese officials made it to the examination hall in the capital just in time for the examination and both of them passed and got promoted. When the 2 officials got together again some time later, they recalled the event on the desert and began to wonder about the grass that stopped the nosebleed. They started making inquiries about the name of the grass, but no herbalists knew anything about it. The 2 drew pictures of the grass from their recollections and ordered their subordinates to search for it.

Finally many years later, the grass was found growing along some hillsides. It was a perennial herb with long, soft hairs over the entire plant. Discovering that the plant still had no name, the officials named it after the red-crowned crane.

American Indian Reference:
Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr.
Agrimony; Rosaceae
Cherokee Drug (Antidiarrheal)
Infusion of burs taken to "check discharge" and "check bowels."
Hamel, Paul B. and Mary U. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva, N.C. Herald Publishing Co. (22)

Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr.
Agrimony; Rosaceae
Cherokee Drug (Blood Medicine)
Infusion of root taken to build up blood.
Hamel, Paul B. and Mary U. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva, N.C. Herald Publishing Co. (22)

Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr.
Agrimony; Rosaceae
Cherokee Drug (Dermatological Aid)
Powdered root compound used for pox.
Hamel, Paul B. and Mary U. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva, N.C. Herald Publishing Co. (22)

Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr.
Agrimony; Rosaceae
Cherokee Drug (Dietary Aid)
Infusion of root given to satisfy children's hunger.
Hamel, Paul B. and Mary U. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva, N.C. Herald Publishing Co. (22)

Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr.
Agrimony; Rosaceae
Cherokee Drug (Febrifuge)
Infusion of burs taken for fever.
Hamel, Paul B. and Mary U. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva, N.C. Herald Publishing Co. (22)

Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr.
Agrimony; Rosaceae
Cherokee Drug (Gastrointestinal Aid)
Cold infusion of pulverized root taken for bowels.
Hamel, Paul B. and Mary U. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva, N.C. Herald Publishing Co. (22)

Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr.
Agrimony; Rosaceae
Cherokee Drug (Gynecological Aid)
Infusion of burs taken to "check discharge" and "check bowels."
Hamel, Paul B. and Mary U. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva, N.C. Herald Publishing Co. (22)

Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr.
Agrimony; Rosaceae
Cherokee Drug (Pediatric Aid)
Infusion of root given to satisfy children's hunger.
Hamel, Paul B. and Mary U. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva, N.C. Herald Publishing Co. (22)

Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr.
Tall Hairy Agrimony; Rosaceae
Iroquois Drug (Antidiarrheal)
Infusion or decoction used by children for diarrhea, summer complaint or vomiting.
Herrick, James William 1977 Iroquois Medical Botany. State University of New York, Albany, PhD Thesis (357)

Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr.
Tall Hairy Agrimony; Rosaceae
Iroquois Drug (Antiemetic)
Infusion given to children for diarrhea, "summer complaint" and vomiting.
Herrick, James William 1977 Iroquois Medical Botany. State University of New York, Albany, PhD Thesis (357)

Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr.
Tall Hairy Agrimony; Rosaceae
Iroquois Drug (Basket Medicine)
Infusion of roots and flowers used on anything to sell, a "basket medicine."
Herrick, James William 1977 Iroquois Medical Botany. State University of New York, Albany, PhD Thesis (358)

Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr.
Tall Hairy Agrimony; Rosaceae
Iroquois Drug (Emetic)
Decoction of plants taken for diarrhea and as emetic for "summer complaint."
Herrick, James William 1977 Iroquois Medical Botany. State University of New York, Albany, PhD Thesis (358)

Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr.
Tall Hairy Agrimony; Rosaceae
Iroquois Drug (Other)
Infusion given to children for diarrhea, "summer complaint" and vomiting.
Herrick, James William 1977 Iroquois Medical Botany. State University of New York, Albany, PhD Thesis (357)

Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr.
Tall Hairy Agrimony; Rosaceae
Iroquois Drug (Pediatric Aid)
Infusion given to children for diarrhea, "summer complaint" and vomiting.
Herrick, James William 1977 Iroquois Medical Botany. State University of New York, Albany, PhD Thesis (357)

Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr.
Agrimony; Rosaceae
Meskwaki Drug (Hemostat)
Root used as a styptic for nosebleeds.
Smith, Huron H. 1928 Ethnobotany of the Meskwaki Indians. Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee 4:175-326 (241)

Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr.
Agrimony; Rosaceae
Ojibwa Drug (Urinary Aid)
Compound containing root used as a medicine for urinary troubles.
Smith, Huron H. 1932 Ethnobotany of the Ojibwe Indians. Bulletin of the Public Museum of Milwaukee 4:327-525 (383,38)

Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr.
Agrimony; Rosaceae
Potawatomi Drug (Hemostat)
Plant used as styptic and infusion snuffed for nosebleed by Prairie Potawatomi.
Smith, Huron H. 1933 Ethnobotany of the Forest Potawatomi Indians. Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee 7:1-230 (76)

Agrimonia parviflora Ait.
Agrimony; Rosaceae
Cherokee Drug (Antidiarrheal)
Infusion of burs taken to "check discharge" and "check bowels."
Hamel, Paul B. and Mary U. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva, N.C. Herald Publishing Co. (22)

Agrimonia parviflora Ait.
Agrimony; Rosaceae
Cherokee Drug (Blood Medicine)
Infusion of root taken to build up blood.
Hamel, Paul B. and Mary U. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva, N.C. Herald Publishing Co. (22)

Agrimonia parviflora Ait.
Agrimony; Rosaceae
Cherokee Drug (Dermatological Aid)
Powdered root compound used for pox.
Hamel, Paul B. and Mary U. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva, N.C. Herald Publishing Co. (22)

Agrimonia parviflora Ait.
Agrimony; Rosaceae
Cherokee Drug (Dietary Aid)
Infusion of root given to satisfy children's hunger.
Hamel, Paul B. and Mary U. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva, N.C. Herald Publishing Co. (22)

Agrimonia parviflora Ait.
Agrimony; Rosaceae
Cherokee Drug (Febrifuge)
Infusion of burs taken for fever.
Hamel, Paul B. and Mary U. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva, N.C. Herald Publishing Co. (22)

Agrimonia parviflora Ait.
Agrimony; Rosaceae
Cherokee Drug (Gastrointestinal Aid)
Cold infusion of pulverized root taken for bowels.
Hamel, Paul B. and Mary U. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva, N.C. Herald Publishing Co. (22)

Agrimonia parviflora Ait.
Agrimony; Rosaceae
Cherokee Drug (Gynecological Aid)
Infusion of burs taken to "check discharge" and "check bowels."
Hamel, Paul B. and Mary U. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva, N.C. Herald Publishing Co. (22)

Agrimonia parviflora Ait.
Agrimony; Rosaceae
Cherokee Drug (Pediatric Aid)
Infusion of root given to satisfy children's hunger.
Hamel, Paul B. and Mary U. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva, N.C. Herald Publishing Co. (22)

Patents:
US5417979: Composition of herbal extracts
Inventor(s): Fan; Sophie , Millwood, NY  Wang; Xuhui , Shanghai, China
Applicant(s): International Medical Research, Inc., Placentia, CA
Issued/Filed Dates: May. 23, 1995 / Nov. 2, 1993
Application Number: US1993000145770

Abstract: A composition comprising a selected combination of herbs and their extracts. Properties of the composition include dietary supplement, appetite stimulant, analgesic and mood elevation utilities, particularly advantageous for broad spectrum improvement in quality of life for terminally ill individuals. This supplement is found to profoundly improve patients' appetites and immune system. It can also largely reduce patient's pain and thus improve patients' mood.

US5248503: Herbal dietary supplement

Inventor(s): Emanuel-King; Rosalba , New York, NY 10016
Applicant(s): none
Issued/Filed Dates: Sept. 28, 1993 / Jan. 3, 1992
Application Number: US1992000816661

Abstract: Dietary supplements containing in solution at least two herbal ingredients selected from a group consisting of: mullen leaf, witch hazel, baptisia (wild indigo), marshmallow root (Althea officianales), Potentilla tormentilla, myrrh, agrimony, blood root (sanguinaria), bistort, echinacea, parsley, eucalyptus, wintergreen, rosemary, ginger, sandalwood, sweet almond, sassafrass, linseed and castor. When ingested transcutaneously the product is holistically effective for reduction of plaque and for treating symptons of gingivitis, gum disorders, cold sores, oral boils, herpes simplex, pimples and acne vulgaris. The holistic product is carried in a treatment medium which may be a liquid solution, drops, gum drops, lozenges, chewing gum, breath dots, toothpaste, a skin patch, an oral rinse, a cream, a poultice, a suppository, a vapor, an inhalter and/or a douche.

Dye:
Agrimony is perhaps best known for the yellow dye that can be made from the leaves and stems. The best yellows are obtained from plants harvested late in the fall. Those harvested earlier produce a yellowish buff color.

Other Uses:
The dried herb has an apricot scent, brewed for a digestive tonic and, with the dried root, is mixed with sachets.

Uses Traditional Herbalist Believe:

Aborigines:
Agrimony is an old remedy of North American and European aborigines for debility, as it gives tone to the whole system.  Useful in bowel complaints, simple diarrhea and relaxed bowels, chronic mucous diseases, asthma, fevers and colds.  In chronic affections of the digestive organs, it seems to expel the evil dispositions of the body, including dropsy and yellow jaundice.  It opens the obstructions of the liver, loosens the hardness of the spleen, when applied externally as well, with hot damp packs using Turkish towels. 

The liver is the builder of blood, and blood the nourishment of the body, and Agrimony strengthens and cleanses the liver.

It is healing to all
inward wounds, bruises, pains and other distempers. 

A decoction taken warm before an incontrollable seizure will remove the spell and in time help to prevent another performance. 

It will kill trouble-making worms and is useful in bed-wetting.It is cleansing to the blood stream and will assist skin conditions so often complained of these days.As a gargle for sore throat and mouth, it is very serviceable; also for obstructed menstruation.

The herb has been recommended for dyspepsia, but is probably only useful in the disorder when carefully combined with other more desirable operating agents.

Amenorrhea:

This is the term that is used for lack of menstruation. There are tons of herbs that can be helpful for this condition and agrimony is one of them. It can be used for the reverse as well; that is excessive menstrual flow. It can also be used as a douche to treat leucorrhea.

Bach Flower Remedies:
Outwardly smiling and brave, inwardly, anguished and suffering. Look deep into the child's eyes. The suffering will show. A determination to appear cheerful, despite suffering going on underneath. The anguish may be due to a family trauma, a significant disappointment, or anything your child may view as
"failure".

They tend not to like being alone since they find it harder to keep the mask up when they are forced into their own company. Instead they will seek out friends, parties and bright lights. Only at night when they are alone with their thoughts will the mental torture they have repressed so successfully come back to haunt them.

Agrimony is given to help  people to accept and come to terms with the darker side of life and their own personalities, so that they can become more rounded human beings. They will not lose their sense of humor, but they will laugh at their troubles to dispel them, rather than laughing to hide them.

As a mood remedy, Agrimony helps anyone who is trying not to face a trouble and using jokes and witticisms and smiles to avoid a painful reality.

Bath:
Agrimony can be used in a bath or foot bath for aching muscles and joints and as an astringent.

Bladder, Liver and Kidneys:
Agrimony is a specific for irritable bladder and renal pain caused by kidney and bladder inflammation; and is usually used with marshmallow root.

It is also  highly regarded liver tonic, and a cup of infusion or 20 drops of tincture, taken twice daily will help stimulate the flow of bile, and tone the gallbladder, spleen and kidneys. It is also considered a reliable remedy for jaundice.

Agimony is a Wise Woman choice for correcting liver, gall bladder, spleen, and kidney problems. Pick the whole plant while it is flowering and dry it well. Half a cup of the pleasant, but astringent, brew will pass its effect through the breast milk to the jaundiced baby if taken several times daily just prior to nursing.

Bleeding:
One anti-hemorrhagic combination is equal parts of agrimony, cinnamon bark and yarrow. The Chinese use the ashes of burnt hair or mugwort, but the burnt ash of agrimony taken internally, as well as applied externally is considered more effective than using the unburnt herb to inhibit bleeding.

Canker sores:
As a mouthwash use equal parts of red raspberry, shavegrass and agrimony.

Children:
"Bilious attacks in children can be a type of migraine and may be linked to food intolerance".
You can combine it with chamomile, catnip or lemon balm for nervous  stomach; or combine with a little marshmallow root for inflammations.

Give an infusion or tincture -- use dosage chart below--dose = expressed as a fraction of an adult dose ( an general dosing chart for children)
0-1 yr one-twentieth
1-2yrs one-tenth
3-4yrs one -fifth
5-6yrs three-tenths
7-8yrs two-fifths
9-10yrs half
11-12yrs three-fifths
13-14yrs four-fifths
15yrs plus full dose

Chinese:
Indications: vomiting of blood, coughing up blood, nosebleeds, and vaginal bleeding. This herb is also used to treat trichomonas vaginalis, dysentery, tapeworm and malaria.

Traditional Chinese medicine regards agrimony as one of the most important herbs for cancer.

Functions: 1. To stop bleeding; 2. To relieve dysentery; 3. To kill parasites

Indications & Combinations:
1. Hemorrhages due to extravasation of blood by heat manifested as cough with blood, vomiting with blood, epistaxis, hematuria, bloody stool and uterine bleeding. Agrimony (Xianhecao) is used with Fresh rehmannia root (Shengdihuang), Moutan bark (Mudanpi), Capejasmine (Zhizi) and Biota tops (Cebaiye).

2. Hemorrhages due to deficient yang qi leading to failure of the spleen to control blood, which results in bloody stool or uterine bleeding. Agrimony (Xianhecao) is used with Ginseng (Renshen), Astragalus root (Huangqi) and Prepared rehmannia root (Shudihuang).

3. Trichomonas vaginitis with itching; 120 g of the herb is prepared in decoction, a cotton ball soaked in the decoction is then put into the vagina for 3-4 hours. Treatment is given once daily for one week.
Dosage: 10-15 g

Colds and Flu:
Use as a gargle to relieve sore throat from a cold or the flu.
A tincture is considered more potent and drying than the infusion, and effective if the condition involves excess phlegm or mucus.

Make an infusion from 2-4 teaspoons of the dried leaves with 1 cup of water and drink a cup a day. Gargle with an infusion or with 10ml tincture diluted in a glass of warm water. Use a simple or add purple sage or rosemary tincture to the gargle.

Digestion:
It is beneficial for the stomach, especially for chronic diarrhea. Agrimony is also a useful remedy for healing peptic ulcers and controlling colitis. It can be combined with bayberry and caraway; or combined with chamomile.

As a digestive tonic it can be combined with Dandelion root and taken.

Agrimony is considered suitable for children who have diarrhea. Use/Dosage take an infusion or tincture. Add soothing herbs like Chamomile, ribwort plantain, or marshmallow root to ease gut inflammation; add bilberry or burnet to enhance astringency.

Eyes:
Agrimony has  been used as a wash for the eyes to help heal conjunctivitis or pink eye. For this purpose, make an infusion and strain well before using.

Food intolerance:
Agrimony soothes gut irritation and inflammation; and heals damaged mucous membranes.
Use/dosage-Take an infusion or up to 4ml tincture three times a day. Add lemon balm and chamomile to reduce stress, combine with soothing anti-inflammatories such as marshmallow root.

Headache:
Apply a poultice of the leaves for migraines. (A. eupatoria).

Homeopathic:
As a homeopathic flower remedy agrimony is for those who conceal deep troubles behind a cheerful care-free mask, and rarely wish to impose their personal problems on others. Easily distressed by arguments, they will "give in" just to achieve a peaceful solution. They often turn to alcohol and drugs to escape their pain.

Incontinence:
Make an infusion of two parts horsetail to one part agrimony and drink as a tonic for the urinary system 2-3 times a day. It is often combined with cornsilk for cystitis and incontinence.

Pregnancy and Nursing Mothers:
Nursing mothers can drink a cupful of agrimony infusion several times throughout the day, and especially before nursing. The medicinal action of the herb will pass through her milk to reverse baby's jaundice.

Skin:
Because of its astringent properties, agrimony makes a fine lotion for the skin. It has also been recommended, as a strong decoction, to cure sores, blemishes, and pimples. The leaves can be used in a facial wash to improve the skin's complexion.

Teeth:
An infusion of the dried flowers and leaves makes a good gargle or mouthwash, helps clear the blood, freshens the breath, and soothes sore gums.

Wounds:
With its rich supply of silica, it helps encourage healing, an agrimony infusion is considered an excellent wash for a hard to heal sore or wound, or to help heal varicose veins.

For slow healing wounds make a soft ointment from comfrey, calendula or agrimony (A. eupatoria), it is soothing and healing.

A compress can be used for the treatment of boils.

Another way to heal external sores is to use a poultice made from the fresh leaves.

An ointment or boluse can be made to shrink bleeding hemorrhoids.

The wine decoction can be applied to draw out thorns and splinters of wood or any other foreign object in the flesh.

As a foot-bath, it has proved to be a cure for athlete's foot.

An infusion of leaves alone can also be used to treat bruising. The infusion is made either 1/2 oz (14g) of dried herb or a handful of fresh herbs to which is added 1 pt (600ml/21/2 cups) of boiling water.

HEALING:

Bacteria:
Tests indicate that Agrimony extracts inhibit selected viruses and the tuberculosis bacterium.

Bleeding:
Chinese research indicates that agrimony can increase the coagulation of the blood by up to 50%. Chinese experiments have shown that agrimony can increase and protect blood platelets, and that it is an effective coagulant and can arrest bleeding (a hemostatic).

Agrimony is an important Chinese herb used for the arrestment of bleeding, and its effects have been proven by modern research. In one study, 20 cases of bleeding, including bleeding from external causes, and bleeding caused by intracranial and thoracic and abdominal surgeries were treated by the hemostatic powder made from this herb.

The results of the study showed that the bleeding stopped within 1-2 minutes in all cases.

Agrimony produced in the Soviet Union has been found to contain plenty of tannin and a small quantity of vitamin K, both of which are believed to be responsible for the hemostatic effects of the herb.

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CHINESE MEDICINE
Wang JP Hsu MF Teng CM
Antihemostatic effect of Hsien-Ho-T'sao (Agrimonia pilosa).
In: Am J Chin Med (1984 Summer) 12(1-4):116-23
ISSN: 0192-415X
Bleeding time in rats was markedly prolonged after the administration of the water extract of Hsien-Ho-T'sao.
This antihemostatic effect was more marked in the group of i.p. injection of the drug than in the group of p.o. administration for 2 or 7 consecutive days. Blood coagulation studies showed that plasma prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and stypven time were prolonged, while thrombin time and fibrinogen level were not changed. The thromboelastographic recording showed that reaction time was prolonged and maximal elasticity of clot was decreased. In addition, ADP- and collagen- induced aggregations of platelet-rich plasma were suppressed.

In conclusion, the prolongation of the bleeding time might be due to both anticoagulant and antiplatelet action of the drug.

Hsu MF Young JH Wang JP Teng CM
Effect of hsien-ho-t'sao (Agrimonia pilosa) on experimental thrombosis in mice.

In: Am J Chin Med (1987) 15(1-2):43-51
ISSN: 0192-415X
The water extract of Hsien-Ho-T'sao (HHT) prolonged the tail bleeding time in conscious mice. This antihemostatic effect was dose-dependent and exhibited a biphasic pattern; i.e. its activity declined at doses higher than 0.5 mg/kg. the prolonged bleeding time persisted for at least 12 hr and maximal effect was observed at 3 hr after the oral administration of HHT 500 mg/kg. HHT was effective in preventing ADP- induced acute pulmonary thromboembolic death in mice, while aspirin and indomethacin had no effect on this model. HHT, like aspirin and indomethacin, also reduced the mortality in collagen- and sodium arachidonate-induced thromboembolic death. All three drugs caused no significant protection in endotoxin shock. HHT was found to suppress platelet aggregation markedly, but little effect on blood coagulation.

In conclusion, HHT was proved to be effective in the treatment of acute pulmonary thromboembolism, and this effect was mainly due to its antiplatelet action.

Wang JP Hsu MF Teng CM
Antiplatelet effect of hsien-ho-t'sao (Agrimonia pilosa).

In: Am J Chin Med (1985) 13(1-4):109-18
ISSN: 0192-415X
The water extract of Hsien-Ho-T'sao (HHT) produced a dose-dependent inhibition on collagen-induced aggregation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The IC50 was about 3.5 mg/ml. In addition, HHT inhibited also the aggregation induced by ADP, A23187 or arachidonate in PRP. Greater inhibition was observed in the preparation of washed platelets. Increase of the calcium concentration in medium could not overcome the inhibitory effect of HHT. ATP release from platelets induced by collagen or A23187 was inhibited by HHT. In the presence of EDTA, ATP release caused by thrombin or A23187 was also inhibited by HHT. Malondialdehyde and thromboxane B2 formation was greatly inhibited by HHT in platelets challenged by collagen and thrombin. In arachidonate-stimulated platelets, thromboxane B2, but not malondialdehyde formation was inhibited. HHT showed more marked inhibition on aggregation in the presence of indomethacin, creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase or a combination of both. Hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis was marked reduced by HHT.

It was concluded that HHT might have some membrane-active properties which interfered with the activation of phospholipase A2.

Cancer:
Chinese research on Agrimonia pilosa reveals a powerful anticoagulant and extracts that inhibit every type of cancer except leukemia (including the painful bone, liver and pancreatic cancers).

D ZHONGYAO  TONGBAO
Tang ZX Zeng F Zeng Y Li D Chen J
[PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE ANTITUMOR ACTIVITIES OF AGRIMONIA PILOSA LEDEB]
In: Zhongyao Tongbao (1981) 6(6):34 (Published in Chinese)
An aqueous extract of Agrimonia pilosa was used on numerous transplantable experimental tumors. The following lines were included: murine sarcoma S180, uterine cervix carcinoma U14, brain tumor B22, Ehrlich ascitic carcinoma, melanoma B16, and rat Walker 256 carcinoma.

The extract exhibited varying degrees of inhibitory effects (36.2-65.9%) on all the above tumor lines. (no Refs)

ANTICANCER RESEARCH
Murayama T Kishi N Koshiura R Takagi K Furukawa T Miyamoto K
Agrimoniin, an antitumor tannin of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb., induces interleukin-1.
In: Anticancer Res (1992 Sep-Oct) 12(5):1471-4
ISSN: 0250-7005
The induction of interleukin-1 (IL-1) by agrimoniin, a tannin of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb., in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro and in mouse adherent peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) in vivo was studied. A significant amount of IL-1 beta in the culture supernatant of the human PBMC
stimulated with agrimoniin was detected with an enzyme-linked immunoadherent assay. Agrimoniin induced IL-1 beta secretion dose- and time-dependently. The adherent PEC from mice intraperitoneally injected with agrimoniin (10 mg/kg) also secreted IL-1 4 days later.

These results suggest that agrimoniin, a plant tannin, is a novel cytokine inducer.

CANCER IMMUNOLOGY, IMMUNOTHERAPY
Miyamoto K Kishi N Murayama T Furukawa T Koshiura R
Induction of cytotoxicity of peritoneal exudate cells by agrimoniin, a novel immunomodulatory tannin of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb.
In: Cancer Immunol Immunother (1988) 27(1):59-62
ISSN: 0340-7004
The cytotoxic activities of the PEC after an i.p. injection of agrimoniin, a tannin contained in Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. were studied. The plastic nonadherent PEC had significantly higher NK cell activity than the untreated control, and the adherent PEC were cytostatic toward MM2 and MH134 cells. The adherent PEC did not cause tumor cell lysis by themselves, but were cytolytic against MM2 cells in the presence of anti-MM2 sera. In the course of these effects of PEC after the i.p. injection of agrimoniin, the augmentation of NK cell activity was the earliest reaction, reaching a peak at 2 days after the injection; then, cytostatic activity increased. The induction of antibody-dependent cell lytic activity was a later reaction, which reached a peak at 6 days after the injection.

Chemical constituents:
Pei YH Li X Zhu TR
[Studies on the chemical constituents from the root-sprouts of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb]
In: Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao (1989) 24(6):431-7
ISSN: 0513-4870 (Published in Chinese)
Five compounds were isolated from the petroleum ether extract of the root-sprouts of Agrimonia pilosa Ledob. A new compound, (R)-(-)- agrimol B (III), was elucidated by means of physical and chemical properties, spectroscopy (MS, IR, PMR, UV) and total synthesis. Four known compounds were identified as agrimophol (I), n-nonacosane (II), beta-sitosterol (IV) and pseudo-aspidin (V), the last one being previously known only as a synthetic entity. (S)-(+)-Agrimol B also was synthesized.

Diabetes:
Diabetologia 1990 Aug;33(8):462-4
Traditional plant treatments for diabetes. Studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice.
Swanston-Flatt SK, Day C, Bailey CJ, Flatt PR
Biomedical Sciences Research Centre, University of Ulster, Coleraine, UK.
The effects on glucose homeostasis of eleven plants used as traditional treatments for diabetes mellitus were evaluated in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice. Dried leaves of agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), blackberry (Rubus fructicosus), celandine (Chelidonium majus), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), lady's mantle (Alchemilla vulgaris), and lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis); seeds of coriander (Coriandrum sativum); dried berries of juniper (Juniperus communis); bulbs of garlic (Allium sativum) and roots of liquorice (Glycyrhizza glabra) were studied. Each plant material was supplied in the diet (6.25% by weight) and some plants were additionally supplied as decoctions or infusions (1 g/400 ml) in place of drinking water to coincide with the traditional method of preparation. Food and fluid intake, body weight gain, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in normal mice were not altered by 12 days of treatment with any of the plants. After administration of streptozotocin (200 mg/kg i.p.) on day 12 the development of hyperphagia, polydipsia, body weight loss, hyperglycaemia and hypoinsulinaemia were not affected by blackberry, celandine, lady's mantle or lily of the valley. Garlic and liquorice reduced the hyperphagia and polydipsia but did not significantly alter the hyperglycaemia or hypoinsulinaemia. Treatment with agrimony, alfalfa, coriander, eucalyptus and juniper reduced the level of hyperglycaemia during the development of streptozotocin diabetes. This was associated with reduced polydipsia (except coriander) and a reduced rate of body weight loss (except agrimony). Alfalfa initially countered the hypoinsulinaemic effect of streptozotocin, but the other treatments did not affect the fall in plasma insulin.

The results suggest that certain traditional plant treatments for diabetes, namely agrimony, alfalfa, coriander, eucalyptus and juniper, can retard the development of streptozotocin diabetes in mice.

Br J Nutr 1998 Jul;80(1):109-14
Actions of the traditional anti-diabetic plant, Agrimony eupatoria (agrimony): effects on hyperglycaemia, cellular glucose metabolism and insulin secretion.
Gray AM, Flatt PR
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, UK. youngheartsproject@hpsspop.n-i.nhs.uk
Agrimony eupatoria (agrimony) has been documented as a traditional treatment of diabetes. Here, the effects of dietary administration of agrimony on streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice and on in vitro glucose uptake and glucose metabolism, and on insulin secretion by BRIN-BD11 cells were investigated. Agrimony incorporated into the diet (62.5 g/kg) and drinking water (2.5 g/l) countered the weight loss, polydipsia, hyperphagia and hyperglycaemia of STZ-diabetic mice. Aqueous extract of agrimony (1 mg/ml) stimulated 2-deoxy-glucose transport (1.4-fold), glucose oxidation (1.4-fold) and incorporation of glucose into glycogen (2.0-fold) in mouse abdominal muscle comparable with 0.1 microM-insulin. In acute 20 min tests, 0.25-1 mg/ml aqueous extract of agrimony evoked a stepwise 1.9-3.8-fold stimulation of insulin secretion from the BRIN-BD11 pancreatic B-cell line. This effect was abolished by 0.5 mM-diazoxide and previous exposure to extract did not adversely affect subsequent stimulation of insulin secretion by 10 mM-L-alanine, thereby indicating that there was no detrimental effect of the extract on cell viability. The effect of extract was glucose-independent and was not evident in BRIN-BD11 cells exposed to a depolarizing concentration of KCl. The ability of agrimony extract to enhance insulin secretion was dependent on use of heat during extract preparation.

These results demonstrate the presence of antihyperglycaemic, insulin-releasing and insulin-like activity in Agrimony eupatoria.

Diarrhea:
The Commission E endorses the use of agrimony for diarrhea, probably due to its high tannin content.

German Health Authority:
The drug Agrimoniae herba is approved internally for mild, nonspecific, acute diarrhea, inflammation of oral and pharyngeal mucosa; and externally for mild, superficial inflammation of the skin. Symptoms: coated tongue, cramp-like pains, diarrhea, difficulty in swallowing, inflamed skin, itch, itching of the skin, loss of appetite, pain when swallowing, reddened throat, sickness, swollen neck glands, weariness.

In Germany, agrimony has been used to treat gallstones and cirrhosis of the liver. It is also employed to counter high uric acid level in rheumatism and gout (it is said to have diuretic properties).

Sore Throat:
The Commission E endorses the use of agrimony  to soothe inflamed mucous membranes of the mouth and throat.

Structure of a New Ellagic Acid Glycoside:
YAO HSUEH HSUEH PAO [ACTA PHARMACEUTICA SINICA]
Pei YH Li X Zhu TR
[Studies on the structure of a new ellagic acid glycoside from the root-sprouts of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb]
In: Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao (1990) 25(10):798-800
ISSN: 0513-4870 (Published in Chinese)
Four compounds were isolated from the root-sprouts of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. On the basis of physico-chemical properties, spectroscopy (UV, IR, NMR, MS) and chemical degradation, a new compound was elucidated as ellagic acid-4-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (XV), and three known compounds were identified as agrimonolide (XIII), tormentic acid (XIV), and ellagic acid (XVI).

Structure of a new flavanonol glucoside:
Pei YH Li X Zhu TR Wu LJ
[Studies on the structure of a new flavanonol glucoside of the root- sprouts of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb]
In: Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao (1990) 25(4):267-70
ISSN: 0513-4870 (Published in Chinese)
Three compounds were isolated from benzene and acetone extracts of the root-sprouts of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. On the basis of physicochemical properties, spectroscopy (UV, IR, NMR, MS, CD, GC) and chemical degradation, two known compounds were identified as palmitic acid (VIII) and daucosterol (IX), one new compound was elucidated as (2S,3S)-(-)-taxifolin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (X).

Structure of a new isocoumarin glucoside :
Pei YH Li X Zhu TR
[Studies on the structure of a new isocoumarin glucoside of the root sprouts of
Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb] In: Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao (1989) 24(11):837-40
ISSN: 0513-4870 (Published in Chinese)
Trans-p-hydroxycinnamic esters VI and an isocoumarin glucoside VII were isolated from the benzene and acetone extracts of the root sprouts of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. On the basis of physicochemical properties, spectral data (UV, IR, NMR, MS, CI-MS-MS), GC and chemical degradation, VI was elucidated as trans-p-hybroxycinnamic esters of n-C22, n-C24-32, n-C34, alcohols, VII was elucidated as agrimonolide-6-Q-beta-D-glucopyranoside. VII and trans-p-hydroxycinnamic esters of n-C29-32 and n-C34 alcohols are new compounds.

Trace Minerals:
CHUNG-KUO CHUNG YAO TSA CHIH CHINA JOURNAL OF CHINESE MATERIA MEDICA* Lin XY Li XL Yang Y
[Determination of trace elements in several hemostatic medicinal plants and their boiling water extracts]
In: Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih (1993 Apr) 18(4):223-4, 254-5 ISSN: 1001-5302 (Published in Chinese)
The experimental results indicate that the amounts of Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn in Rubia cordifolia and Agrimonia pilosa var. japonica are very small in boiling water extracts (only 6%). But after digestion they may rise to 30%. It was found that the amounts of four trace elements decreased with the increase of extracting time, but the ratios of Mn/Zn and Zn/Cu were almost the same

Tumors:
JAPANESE JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY
Miyamoto K Kishi N Koshiura R
Antitumor effect of agrimoniin, a tannin of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb., on transplantable rodent tumors.
In: Jpn J Pharmacol (1987 Feb) 43(2):187-95
ISSN: 0021-5198
The effect of agrimoniin, a tannin contained in Agrimonia pilosa LEDEB., on ascites type and solid type rodent tumors was investigated. When agrimoniin was intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered at dosages over 10 mg/kg before or after the MM2 cell i.p. inoculation, this tannin almost completely rejected the tumor growth in the mice. This tannin prolonged the life span of mice bearing MM2 or cured by the intravenous or per oral pre- or postmedication. Agrimoniin also inhibited the growth of MH134 and Meth-A solid type tumors. Agrimoniin showed strong cytotoxicity on MM2 cells in vitro, but the activity was diminished to about 4% of the initial activity by the addition of fetal calf serum to the culture. On the other hand, i.p. injection of agrimoniin increased the number of peripheral white blood cells and the ratio of monocytes. On the 4th day after the i.p. injection of the tannin, cytotoxic adherent peritoneal exudate cells were also increased. The spleen of the mice was enlarged, and the spleen cells possessed the capacity to take up 3H-thymidine. Agrimoniin showed weak direct migration activity against spleen cells from non-treated mice.

These results indicate that agrimoniin is a potent antitumor tannin and suggest that the antitumor effect may be due to this tannin enhancing the immune response of the host animals through the actions on tumor cells and some immunocytes.

Koshiura R Miyamoto K Ikeya Y Taguchi H
Antitumor activity of methanol extract from roots of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb.
In: Jpn J Pharmacol (1985 May) 38(1):9-16 ISSN: 0021-5198
To evaluate the antitumor activity of Agrimonia pilosa LEDEB., the effects of the methanol extract from roots of the plant (AP-M) on several transplantable rodent tumors were investigated. AP-M significantly prolonged the life span of S180-, Meth-A fibrosarcoma- and MM-2 mammary carcinoma-bearing mice by intraperitoneal (i.p.) pre- or postmedication. AP-M also inhibited the growth of S-180 solid type tumor. On the other hand, the prolongation of life span induced by AP-M on S-180 ascites type tumor-bearing mice was markedly minimized or abolished by the pretreatment of cyclophosphamide. AP-M showed considerably strong cytotoxicity on MM-2 cells in vitro, but the effect was diminished to one-tenth by the addition of serum to the culture. Against the host animals, the peripheral white blood cells in mice were significantly increased from 2 to 5 days after the i.p. injection of AP-M. On 4th day after the injection of AP-M, the peritoneal exudate cells which possessed the cytotoxic activity on MM- 2 cells in vitro were also increased to about 5-fold those in the non- treated control. The spleen of the mice was enlarged, and the spleen cells possessed the capacity to uptake 3H-thymidine. However, AP-M did not show direct migration activity like other mitogens against spleen cells from non-treated mice.

These results indicate that the roots of Agrimonia pilosa contain some antitumor constituents, and possible mechanisms of the antitumor activity may be some host- mediated actions and direct cytotoxicity.

MUTAGENESIS
Horikawa K Mohri T Tanaka Y Tokiwa H
Moderate inhibition of mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of benzo[a]pyrene, 1,6-dinitropyrene and 3,9 dinitrofluoranthene by Chinese medicinal herbs.
In: Mutagenesis (1994 Nov) 9(6):523-6 ISSN: 0267-8357
The activity of six Chinese medicinal herbs against the environmental mutagens and carcinogens benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 1,6-dinitropyrene (1,6-diNP) and 3,9-dinitrofluoranthene (3,9-diNF) was determined. Samples of Prunella spica, Rheum palmatum, Polygonum multiflorum, Agrimonia pilosa, Ephedra sinica and Teitoutou were tested in an in vitro system. Antimutagenic activity against B[a]P was marked in the presence of extracts (boiled for 2 h in a water bath) whereas that against 1,6-diNP and 3,9-diNF varied from 20 to 86%. The differences in inhibition might be due to inactivation of metabolic enzymes. An extract of P.multiflorum was divided into ether, ethyl acetate and water soluble fractions, which were tested for antimutagenic activity against B[a]P. The antimutagenic action of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction was substantial and dose-dependent. Tannins and related compounds were the major components of the extract, of which epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate and tannic acid strongly inhibited the mutagenicity of B[a]P (2.5 micrograms/plate) in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 with S9 mix. To confirm the results of the in vitro test system, F344/DuCrj male rats were given a subcutaneous injection of B[a]P. Thereafter, they received water extracts of the six Chinese medicinal herbs for 50 weeks and were examined for tumors.

The P. multiflorum extract significantly reduced the tumor incidence.

YAKUGAKU ZASSHI. JOURNAL OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN
Koshiura R Miyamoto K Takada Y Kiriyama N
[STUDIES ON THE CONSTITUENTS OF AGRIMONIA PILOSA LEDEB. I. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF THE ACIDIC FRACTION OF THE ROOTS THAT IS SOLUBLE IN N- HEXANE]
In: Yakugaku Zasshi (1980) 100(11):1167-1170
ISSN: 0031-6903 (Published in Japanese)
Interesting biological activity was observed in fractions of an extract of Agrimonia pilosa LEDEB roots. These fractions were different from already-established components of A pilosa. An extraction of dried A pilosa roots collected from the Katsuyama-shi region of Fukui Prefecture was performed, and cytotoxic and antitumor activities of the various fractions were assessed in HeLa cells (colony forming method) and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells (in vitro- in vivo method). Fraction III inhibited HeLa cell colony formation 50% at concentrations of 12 ug/ml (IC50), prolonged the life of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice 32% more than controls at a concentration of 12.5 ug/ml, and prolonged the survival of 4/5 Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing ddy mice greater than 60 days. Fraction VIII had an IC50 towards HeLa colony formation of 1.5 ug/ml and showed hemo-agglutinability and hemolytic action in the absence of protein in HeLa cells. (18 Refs)

The Safety Factor:

In general agrimony appears to be safe to use. James Duke, Ph.D., rates this herb as safe as coffee, stating that he wouldn't be afraid to drink 2 cups a day, but Tyler gives it a negative in the safety column.

Contraindicated in patients with a history of allergy to plants of the rose family and in pregnant or breast-feeding patients.

According to Chinese herbals this herb is obstructive, so those should avoid it with constipation.

The plant contains certain compounds that react with sunlight, and if a treated area is exposed to the sun, a rash might develop.

Due to the fact that agrimony is a coagulant, it would seem prudent that for people who are on anti-coagulants medication avoid it.

Growing Your Own:

Originally native to  Mid and Northern Europe, now common in the United States and in parts of Asia. In the western part of the United States, it is found in the Middle Mountains. The plant is found abundantly throughout England, on hedge-banks and the sides of fields, in dry thickets and on all waste places. In Scotland, Agrimony is much more local, and does not penetrate very far northward.

Agrimony's natural habitat is in the woods, sides of fields, waste places, and along roadsides and fences.

Agrimony is a hairy, deep green perennial herb with a cylindrical, slightly rough stem bearing a few branches with a height of about 5 feet. The whole plant is slightly aromatic, while the flowers themselves have a spicy odor from July to August.

The flowers are yellow, 3/4 inch across: 5 egg-shaped petals slightly notched at end, with 5-12 stamens that grow close and profusely on a spike.

The leaves are alternate, odd pinnate, toothed, and downy; the lower leaves are 7-8 inches long and have more leaflets; the upper leaflets are about 3 inches long with fewer leaflets; the leaflets vary in size with small ones alternating between much larger ones; the largest leaflets measure from 1-1/2 inches long.

Both the flowers and the notched leaves give off a faint characteristic lemony scent when crushed. After the flowers fade they give place to tiny clinging "burrs" which will quickly adhere to your clothing if you brush by the plant in a hedgerow.

Agrimony is easily started from seed and will self-seed once it is established. Plant seedling in-groups of 6-8 with 6 inches between each plant.

Agrimony is susceptible to powdery mildew.

The leaves for drying should be picked before the flowers have bloomed and the flowers well before the seed heads have formed. The flowers and leaves can be used fresh or dried.

Macroscopical:
Mainly green fragments of the toothed, hairy leaflets, the underside being lighter in colour than the upper due to the density of the hairs. Fruit receptacle covered with soft, hooked spines. Stem pieces more or less collapsed and wrinkled, green-brown streaked red, covered with coarse hairs. Odour slight.

Microscopical:
Covering trichomes long, unicellular, pointed, somewhat warty with thick, lignified walls showing loose spiral thickening. Glandular trichomes with oviod heads of 2 to 4 cells supported on bent stalks of 1 to 3 cells. Leaf epidermal cells with sinuous anticlinal walls. Stomata anomocytic, large and sunken, in the lower epidermis only. Large calcium oxalate prisms occur in the meosphyll. Pollen grains spherical, with a smooth exine and 3 furrows, about 45 Ám in diameter.

References:

A Modern Herbal by Mrs. M. Grieve

Chinese Herbal Cures by Henry C. Lu

Culpeper's Complete Herbal Original printed in 1653 by Nicholas Culpeper

Medical Plants in The Republic of Korea; WHO Regional Publications Western PacificSeries #21

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